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The Electroweak Epoch

New to this tour in physics? Start at THE BIG BANG. 

The Electro Weak Epoch from Wikipedia:

“In traditional big bang cosmology, the Electroweak epoch begins 10−36 second after the Big Bang, when the temperature of the universe is low enough (1028 K) to separate the strong force from the electroweak force (the name for the unified forces of electromagnetism and the weak interaction). In inflationary cosmology, the electroweak epoch begins when the inflationary epoch ends, at roughly 10−32 second.

In physical cosmology the electroweak epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe when the temperature of the universe was high enough to merge electromagnetism and the weak interaction into a single electroweak interaction (> 100 GeV).

The electroweak epoch began when the strong force separated from the electroweak interaction. Some cosmologists place this event at the start of the inflationary epoch, approximately 10−36 seconds after the Big Bang.[1][2][3] Others place it at approximately 10−32 seconds after the Big Bang when the potential energy of the inflaton field that had driven the inflation of the universe during the inflationary epoch was released, filling the universe with a dense, hot quark–gluon plasma.[4] ”

Take note, that the theory of Big Bang explains that gravity separated from all the other forces in THE PLANCK EPOCH.

Now the strong force is separated from electromagnetism and the weak force.

Next lecture THE BARYOGENESIS.

The Electroweak Epoch

Gravity, electromagnetism, strong and weak force

New to this tour in physics? Start at THE BIG BANG. 

The gravitational force.
Gravity is a natural phenomenon by which all physical bodies attract each other. It is most commonly experienced as the agent that gives weight to objects with mass and causes them to fall to the ground when dropped. Einsteins general relativity explains gravity.

The electromagnetic force,
This is the interaction responsible for almost all the phenomena encountered in daily life, with the exception of gravity. Electrons are bound by electromagnetic wave mechanics into orbitals around atomic nuclei to form atoms, which are the building blocks of molecules. Visible light is electromagnetism, as well as radio waves and x-rays. Photons is the carrier of the force from one atom to another.

The strong force.
At atomic scale, it is about 100 times stronger than electromagnetism, which in turn is orders of magnitude stronger than the weak force interaction and gravitation. In the context of binding protons and neutrons together to form atoms, the strong interaction is called the nuclear force (or residual strong force).The binding energy related to the residual strong force is used in nuclear power and nuclear weapons.

The weak force.
This force is termed weak because its field strength over a given distance is typically several orders of magnitude less than that of the strong nuclear force and electromagnetism. The weak interaction is responsible for both the radioactive decay and nuclear fusion of subatomic particles. It is best described as a non-contact force field having a finite range, albeit very short. In 1968 Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg unified the electromagnetic force and the weak interaction by showing them to be two aspects of a single force, now termed the electro-weak force.

The GUT, Grand Unification Theory, theorizes today, that electromagnetism, strong and weak force could be considered as one force. Einsteins general relativity, explaining gravity, cannot merge with these forces. If you remember from the The Grand Unification,  gravity separated from the other forces at the end of the Planck Epoch.

Next lecture THE ELECTROWEAK EPOCH.

These diagrams illustrates how the three forces merge at very high energies, and how the fourth, gravity, stand alone.

All other forces combine nicely at high energies. Gravity is not close.

Gravity and big bang

Gravity is an outsider

The Grand Unification

New to this tour in physics? Start at THE BIG BANG. 

From Wikipedia:

“In physical cosmology, assuming that nature is described by a Grand unification theory, the grand unification epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe following the Planck epoch, starting at about 10−43 seconds after the Big Bang, in which the temperature of the universe was comparable to the characteristic temperatures of grand unified theories.

During this period, three of the four fundamental interactions—electromagnetism, the strong interaction, and the weak interaction—were unified as the electronuclear force.

Gravity had separated from the electronuclear force at the end of the Planck era. During the grand unification epoch, physical characteristics such as mass, charge, flavour and colour charge were meaningless.

The grand unification epoch ended at approximately 10−36 seconds after the Big Bang. At this point several key events took place. The strong force separated from the other fundamental forces. The temperature fell below the threshold at which X and Y bosons could be created, and the remaining X and Y bosons decayed.[citation needed] It is possible that some part of this decay process violated the conservation of baryon number and gave rise to a small excess of matter over antimatter (see baryogenesis). This phase transition is also thought to have triggered the process of cosmic inflation that dominated the development of the universe during the following inflationary epoch.”

Take note that after the Planck Epoch, gravity had separated from the three remaining forces. It is important to grasp the four forces of nature before we continue.

Next lecture THE FOUR FORCES OF NATURE: GRAVITY, ELECTROMAGNETISM, THE STRONG FORCE AND THE WEAK FORCE.

 

The Grand Unification

TOE = Theory of everything

GUT = Grand Unified Theory