I am talking to a renowned professor in physics here in Copenhagen these days, about how maybe to solve this mystery. We might have the article below in a peer-reviewed magazine in the future.
We all agree that electromagnetism is explaining a lot. If we consider the weak force as some kind of electromagnetism, at least it could be interpreted as such, then we only have the strong force and gravity to explain.
If we combine the strong force, gravity and the “force” that seems to expand the universe, dark energy, maybe we get somewhere.
How to do that?
If space-time expresses gravity on the subatomic level and “anti-gravity” on the cosmological level, then we only have to find a missing minus sign in our equations.
One big hurdle though. The theory assumes that the speed of light varies in time and space.
This article describes how to revise Einstein. It is not ready for peer review yet, but I thought you should have it here, maybe you could give some mathematical feedback, that solves the last mysteries. It was written in 2009, and never published, due to my own doubts about it.
Due to the mystery of dark energy not being solved, I give this wild goose chase a chance in public.
Einstein’s Field Equations revised:
Can space-time explain dark matter and dark energy?
By Otto Krog
Is it possible to explain dark energy and dark matter, by assuming that space-time expresses gravitation as well as anti-gravitation (expansion), and by disregarding the cosmological constant?
This theory suggests that space-time not only expresses gravity, but also expansion.
Space-time expresses gravity, no doubt about that. It has been proven beyond doubt.
However, dark matter and dark energy might be explained by postulating that space-time also expresses anti-gravity, the expansion of the universe.
Space and time
In the physical universe space is the distance between objects (energy), and time is the measurement of motion between objects (energy).
Five levels, called the Q’s.
Instead of using a cosmological constant, space-time expresses expansion on super-atomic level.
This theory is based on the physical universe standard model fields being divided into five levels:
Q0. Absolute zero space and zero time, a point. This is the centre of the proton. In this level space-time expresses absolute infinite gravity. This level is unattainable in the physical universe.
Q1. The subatomic and atomic level. This starts in Q0 and ends in Q2. In this level space-time expresses the entirety of gravitation in the physical universe. This is directly opposed to the usual understanding, that space-time has a very little influence sub-atomically. In this theory space-time expresses gravity sub-atomically in Q0 and Q1, and space-time expresses anti-gravity in Q3 and Q.
Q2. Neutral ground for gravitation and expansion. This is the orbit of the electron. This is neutral ground for gravity. This is the area where there is equilibrium between gravity and expansion.
Q3. The above neutral ground level. Super-atomic level. This level starts in Q2 and ends in Q. In this level space-time expresses expansion or anti-gravitation. Here we have the best observation of electromagnetic fields, as described in Maxwell, and as seen in the light we receive from cosmos.
Q. Absolute infinite space and time. This level is the “point” of infinite space and infinite time. We define infinite time as the past, the present and the future. In this level space-time expresses absolute infinite anti-gravitation. This level is unattainable in the physical universe.
Even though we agree that there is no absolute vacuüm, we still say that everything is relative to the speed of light in vacuüm. The postulate in this theory is that this is not the entire truth. Everything is relative to everything.
Again Einstein was right. He said that the speed of light is constant locally.
A new understanding of the Einstein Field Equations.
Einstein’s general relativity in mathematics:
is the Einstein tensor, which expresses the curvature of space-time.
is the stress-energy tensor that describes the density and flux of energy and momentum in space-time.
K is a constant:
K is a very small positive number very close to zero, but not zero.
If we take an observation point from Q2, the “neutral ground”, and extend our observation to Q3, what will happen?
Space-time will curve space and afflict time as described in GR.
In Q3, it is evident that we have to have the constant K in the field equation. If we didn’t, space would curve all too much, and gravity would be so immense, that the universe would collapse. But this is only when we observe from Q3. And that is exactly what we do in general relativity. We observe from Q3.
This theory suggests a way to observe from all levels. The postulate in this theory is, that this constant K is the correct one locally, but only when the observation is made from Q3.
In this theory we suggest that in Q0 and Q1, the sub-atomic area, the constant K, approximates infinity.
We also suggest that in Q3 and Q, the super-atomic level, the constant K, is approaching absolute zero.
The Einstein Field Equation’s described in Q’s:
Q0 and 1. The subatomic and atomic level:
as K ∞
As K approaches infinity, by approaching c, the speed of light, to zero, we move towards infinite gravitation and super-curved space, through Q1 and Q0. This results in a super gravitation in the protons centre. C, the speed of light becomes lower and lower, until it stops utterly in Q0. This is where space-time expresses gravity. And the gravity is so immense, that it can hold the universe in equilibrium, and be measured as weight.
Q2. The neutral ground level:
GR works, as we know it, when the observation is made from Q2, and we observe Q3.
Q3 and Q. The above neutral ground level:
as K 0
As K approaches zero, by approaching c, the speed of light, to infinite speed, we approach infinite anti-gravitation (expansion), through Q3 and Q. This is where space-time expresses anti-gravity. The further you reach into infinite space, c, the speed of light, approximates infinite speed.
In actual fact all these levels work “opposite” the normal way of looking at GR. These equations should therefore be negated on one side of the equation all the way through. The reason it has not been done is due to clarity, but also due to some scientists, that prefers to negate K as a constant.
Einstein’s space-time separation s between two events is:
s2 = x2 + y2 + z2 – c2t2
But, as space-time is reversed in this theory, it becomes:
s2 = x2 + y2 + z2 + c2t2
It makes Einstein even more beautiful.
The Einstein Q Field Equations in short:
Q0 and Q1. ∞
as K ∞
Q3 and Q. 0
as K 0
How would GR work when we approach infinite space and time?
Space-time will still curve space and afflict time. But by adjusting the constant K, so it approaches zero, by approaching c, the speed of light to infinite speed, space-time expresses expansion, i.e. anti-gravity. The further we go into space the more anti-gravity. Hitherto this manifestation has been attempted to be explained as dark energy.
How would GR work when we approach zero space and time?
Space-time will still curve space and afflict time. We adjust the constant K, to approach infinity, by letting c, the speed of light, approach zero. By approaching the centre of the proton, we approach absolute zero space and time. Then space-time expresses super-gravity and super curvature of space. Below the level of the electron, the speed of light slows down, untill it approaches a complete stop in the centre of the proton. The reason the universe doesn’t collapse, is due to anti-gravitation taking place in Q3 and Q.
Thereby the constant, the speed of light in vacuüm, becomes a variable in all levels of the universe. In this sector of the universe it is about 300.000 km’s a second. In other galaxies it might be more or less.
Implications and conclusions
Space-time is an expression of gravity in sub-atomic fields.
Space-time is an expression of anti-gravity in super-atomic fields.
Sub-atomically the speed of light approaches zero, whereby space-time expresses super-curvature of space, and super-gravity.
Super-atomically the speed of light approaches infinity, whereby space-time expresses super-anti-gravitation, seen as expansion and acceleration of the universe.
Dark energy is possibly not extra energy, but a result of super-atomic space-time. Q3 and Q accelerate the universe through anti-gravitation, which is an expression of space-time.
Dark matter is possibly a miscalculation, emerged from the wrongly assumption, that the speed of light is constant. When we look at a stellar system that seems to have too much matter, it might not be extra matter that makes the paradox. It might be that the speed of light “out there” is higher or lower, than our postulated speed of light. Then we calculate more or less matter (condensed energy), than we in reality have out there.
The speed of light approaches zero in the “sub-atomic level”. This condition of approached zero light speed, we also find in black holes, and in Lene Hau’s experiments.
The speed of light approaches infinite speed in the “super atomic level”.
Big Bang has to be considered in a different way. The implications of this theory in cosmology will show us a Universe larger than we hitherto has assumed, and much older.
This theory is not in any way contradicting Einstein.
It is a theory that expands knowledge of life in both philosophy and in the natural sciences. Philosophers have always talked about infinity as a concept, and so have mathematicians.