All posts by Otto Krog

I have been searching for the truth since my childhood, without having found it. I have come to the realization that it cannot be found, but the meaning of life is to keep searching for it. I think that the world need philosophy to merge with science, again.

What is Nucleosynthesis

Nucleosynthesis? New to this tour in physics? Start at THE BIG BANG. 

From Wikipedia:

“Between 3 minutes and 20 minutes after the Big Bang

During the photon epoch the temperature of the universe falls to the point where atomic nuclei can begin to form.

Protons (hydrogen ions) and neutrons begin to combine into atomic nuclei in the process of nuclear fusion.

Free neutrons combine with protons to form deuterium. Deuterium rapidly fuses into helium-4.

Nucleosynthesis only lasts for about seventeen minutes, since the temperature and density of the universe has fallen to the point where nuclear fusion cannot continue.

By this time, all neutrons have been incorporated into helium nuclei. This leaves about three times more hydrogen than helium-4 (by mass) and only trace quantities of other nuclei.

In physical cosmology, Big Bang nucleosynthesis (abbreviated BBN, also known as primordial nucleosynthesis) refers to the production of nuclei other than those of the lightest isotope of hydrogen during the early phases of the universe.

Primordial nucleosynthesis is believed by most cosmologists to have taken place between approximately 10 seconds until 20 minutes after the Big Bang, and is calculated to be responsible for the formation of most of the universe’s helium as isotope He-4, along with small amounts of deuterium (H-2 or D), the helium isotope He-3, and a very small amount of the lithium isotope Li-7.

In addition to these stable nuclei, two unstable or radioactive isotopes were also produced: tritium or H-3; and beryllium-7 (Be-7); but these unstable isotopes later decayed into He-3 and Li-7, as above.

Essentially all the elements heavier than Lithium were created much later, by stellar nucleosynthesis in evolving and exploding stars.


What is Nucleosynthesis

What is the Photon Epoch

The Photon Epoch? New to this tour in physics? Start at THE BIG BANG. 

From Wikipedia:

“Between 10 seconds and 380,000 years after the Big Bang.

A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force.

In physical cosmology, the photon epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe in which photons dominated the energy of the universe.

The photon epoch started after most leptons and anti-leptons were annihilated at the end of the lepton epoch, about 10 seconds after the Big Bang.

Atomic nuclei were created in the process of nucleosynthesis which occurred during the first few minutes of the photon epoch.

For the remainder of the photon epoch the universe contained a hot dense plasma of nuclei, electrons and photons.

About 380,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the universe fell to the point where nuclei could combine with electrons to create neutral atoms.

As a result, photons no longer interacted frequently with matter, the universe became transparent and the cosmic microwave background radiation was created and then structure formation took place.”


The Photon Epoch


What is the Lepton Epoch

The Lepton Epoch? New to this tour in physics? Start at THE BIG BANG. 

The best known of all leptons is the electron, which governs nearly all of chemistry as it is found in atoms and is directly tied to all chemical properties.

From Wikipedia:

“Between 1 second and 10 seconds after the Big Bang

The majority of hadrons and anti-hadrons annihilate each other at the end of the hadron epoch, leaving leptons and anti-leptons dominating the mass of the universe. Approximately 10 seconds after the Big Bang the temperature of the universe falls to the point at which new lepton/anti-lepton pairs are no longer created and most leptons and anti-leptons are eliminated in annihilation reactions, leaving a small residue of leptons.

One of the most prominent properties of leptons is their electric charge, Q. The electric charge determines the strength of their electromagnetic interactions. It determines the strength of the electric field generated by the particle and how strongly the particle reacts to an external electric or magnetic field.

Most leptons and anti-leptons were then eliminated in annihilation reactions, leaving a small residue of leptons. The mass of the universe was then dominated by photons as it entered the following photon epoch.

Next lecture  THE PHOTON EPOCH.

The Lepton Epoch


What is the Hadron Epoch

The Hadron Epoch? New to this tour in physics? Start at THE BIG BANG. 

You probably have heard about The Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The biggest instrument/machine on Earth are located at CERN. See image below. The accelerator smashes hadron’s together.

From Wikipedia:

“Between 10–6 second and 1 second after the Big Bang.

In particle physics, a hadron is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force (in a similar way as atoms and molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force).

In physical cosmology, the hadron epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe during which the mass of the Universe was dominated by hadrons.

It started approximately 10−6 seconds after the Big Bang, when the temperature of the universe had fallen sufficiently to allow the quarks from the preceding quark epoch to bind together into hadrons.

Initially the temperature was high enough to allow the formation of hadron/anti-hadron pairs, which kept matter and anti-matter in thermal equilibrium.

However, as the temperature of the universe continued to fall, hadron/anti-hadron pairs were no longer produced.

Most of the hadrons and anti-hadrons were then eliminated in annihilation reactions, leaving a small residue of hadrons. The elimination of anti-hadrons was completed by one second after the Big Bang, when the following lepton epoch began.”

Take note, that after one second, the majority of anti-matter had disappeared from the physical universe.

Next lecture  THE LEPTON EPOCH.

The Hadron Epoch


What is the Quark Epoch

Quark Epoch? New to this tour in physics? Start at THE BIG BANG. 

Quarks are the elementary particles that make up protons and anti-protons. If you have heard about up-quarks and down-quarks, you have heard right. They are all part of the standard model, the most workable model for the physical universe at this day.

From Wikipedia:

“In physical cosmology the quark epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe when the fundamental interactions of gravitation, electromagnetism, the strong interaction and the weak interaction had taken their present forms, but the temperature of the universe was still too high to allow quarks to bind together to form hadrons.

The quark epoch began approximately 10−12 seconds after the Big Bang, when the preceding electroweak epoch ended as the electroweak interaction separated into the weak interaction and electromagnetism.

During the quark epoch the universe was filled with a dense, hot quark-gluon plasma, containing quarks, leptons and their antiparticles.

Collisions between particles were too energetic to allow quarks to combine into mesons or baryons. The quark epoch ended when the universe was about 10−6 seconds old, when the average energy of particle interactions had fallen below the binding energy of hadrons. The following period, when quarks became confined within hadrons, is known as the hadron epoch.”

Next lecture  THE HADRON EPOCH.

The quark epoch

The Higgs Field

New to this tour in physics? Start at THE BIG BANG. 

From Wikipedia:

“The Higgs Field is an invisible energy field that exists throughout the universe. The field is accompanied by a fundamental particle called the Higgs Boson, which it uses to continuously interact with other particles. As particles pass through the field they are endowed with the property of mass, much as an object passing through treacle (or molasses) will become slower.

Although apparent, mass is not generated by the Higgs field, as creation of matter or energy would conflict with the laws of conservation; mass is, however, transferred to particles from the field, which contains the relative mass in the form of energy. Once the field has endowed a formerly massless particle the particle slows down because it has become heavier.

If the Higgs field did not exist particles would not have the mass required to attract one another, and would simply float around freely at light-speed.
The process of endowing a particle with mass is known as the Higgs Effect.”

Remember that The Higgs Field started giving the Universe mass within the first million’th of a second.

This is the field that physicists searched for, since the sixties. It gave the Nobel price to Peter Higgs this summer.

Next lecture  THE QUARK EPOCH.

The Higgs Field

Electroweak symmetry breaking

New to this tour in physics? Start at THE BIG BANG. 

Electroweak symmetry breaking and the quark epoch, from Wikipedia:

“Between 10–12 second and 10–6 second after the Big Bang

As the universe’s temperature falls below a certain very high energy level, it is believed that the Higgs field spontaneously acquires a vacuum expectation value, which breaks electroweak gauge symmetry. This has two related effects:

1 The weak force and electromagnetic force, and their respective bosons  manifest differently in the present universe, with different ranges;
2 Via the Higgs mechanism, all elementary particles interacting with the Higgs field become massive, having been massless at higher energy levels.

At the end of this epoch, the fundamental interactions of gravitation, electromagnetism, the strong interaction and the weak interaction have now taken their present forms, and fundamental particles have mass, but the temperature of the universe is still too high to allow quarks to bind together to form hadrons.”

Editors note:

1. Popularly a boson is a force-carrying particle.
2. Now all four forces are separated, the universe has mass, as the Higgs mechanism has started. And the universe has only existed in 1/million’th of a second.

What is the Higgs field and what is a hadron???

Next lecture THE HIGGS FIELD and after THE QUARK EPOCH we will get to THE HADRON EPOCH.

Electroweak symmetry and the quark epoch

What is Baryogenesis?

New to this tour in physics? Start at THE BIG BANG. 

What is Baryogenesis, from Wikipedia:

“There is currently insufficient observational evidence to explain why the universe contains far more baryons than antibaryons.”

Editors note, popularly you could define baryons as protons, and anti-baryons as anti-protons. The Baryogenesis, is the time epoch, where matter took control over anti-matter.

Back to Wikipedia:

“The Dirac equation,formulated by Paul Dirac around 1928 as part of the development of relativistic quantum mechanics, predicts the existence of antiparticles along with the expected solutions for the corresponding particles. Since that time, it has been verified experimentally that every known kind of particle has a corresponding antiparticle. It is puzzling that the universe does not have equal amounts of matter and antimatter. Indeed, there is no experimental evidence that there are any significant concentrations of antimatter in the observable universe.

There are two main interpretations for this disparity: either the universe began with a small preference for matter, or the universe was originally perfectly symmetric, but somehow a set of phenomena contributed to a small imbalance in favor of matter over time. The second point of view is preferred, although there is no clear experimental evidence indicating either of them to be the correct one.”

So, here you go, the Baryogenesis is where matter separates from antimatter in Big Bang Theory.


Gods hands in the Baryogenesis?

The Electroweak Epoch

New to this tour in physics? Start at THE BIG BANG. 

The Electro Weak Epoch from Wikipedia:

“In traditional big bang cosmology, the Electroweak epoch begins 10−36 second after the Big Bang, when the temperature of the universe is low enough (1028 K) to separate the strong force from the electroweak force (the name for the unified forces of electromagnetism and the weak interaction). In inflationary cosmology, the electroweak epoch begins when the inflationary epoch ends, at roughly 10−32 second.

In physical cosmology the electroweak epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe when the temperature of the universe was high enough to merge electromagnetism and the weak interaction into a single electroweak interaction (> 100 GeV).

The electroweak epoch began when the strong force separated from the electroweak interaction. Some cosmologists place this event at the start of the inflationary epoch, approximately 10−36 seconds after the Big Bang.[1][2][3] Others place it at approximately 10−32 seconds after the Big Bang when the potential energy of the inflaton field that had driven the inflation of the universe during the inflationary epoch was released, filling the universe with a dense, hot quark–gluon plasma.[4] ”

Take note, that the theory of Big Bang explains that gravity separated from all the other forces in THE PLANCK EPOCH.

Now the strong force is separated from electromagnetism and the weak force.


The Electroweak Epoch

Gravity, electromagnetism, strong and weak force

New to this tour in physics? Start at THE BIG BANG. 

The gravitational force.
Gravity is a natural phenomenon by which all physical bodies attract each other. It is most commonly experienced as the agent that gives weight to objects with mass and causes them to fall to the ground when dropped. Einsteins general relativity explains gravity.

The electromagnetic force,
This is the interaction responsible for almost all the phenomena encountered in daily life, with the exception of gravity. Electrons are bound by electromagnetic wave mechanics into orbitals around atomic nuclei to form atoms, which are the building blocks of molecules. Visible light is electromagnetism, as well as radio waves and x-rays. Photons is the carrier of the force from one atom to another.

The strong force.
At atomic scale, it is about 100 times stronger than electromagnetism, which in turn is orders of magnitude stronger than the weak force interaction and gravitation. In the context of binding protons and neutrons together to form atoms, the strong interaction is called the nuclear force (or residual strong force).The binding energy related to the residual strong force is used in nuclear power and nuclear weapons.

The weak force.
This force is termed weak because its field strength over a given distance is typically several orders of magnitude less than that of the strong nuclear force and electromagnetism. The weak interaction is responsible for both the radioactive decay and nuclear fusion of subatomic particles. It is best described as a non-contact force field having a finite range, albeit very short. In 1968 Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg unified the electromagnetic force and the weak interaction by showing them to be two aspects of a single force, now termed the electro-weak force.

The GUT, Grand Unification Theory, theorizes today, that electromagnetism, strong and weak force could be considered as one force. Einsteins general relativity, explaining gravity, cannot merge with these forces. If you remember from the The Grand Unification,  gravity separated from the other forces at the end of the Planck Epoch.


These diagrams illustrates how the three forces merge at very high energies, and how the fourth, gravity, stand alone.

All other forces combine nicely at high energies. Gravity is not close.

Gravity and big bang

Gravity is an outsider